Scenarios 

  • Anaphylaxis

  • Concussion 

  • Infant Choking or Gagging

Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is a sudden drop in blood pressure accompanied by trouble breathing. If an individual has an allergy, anaphylaxis can occur minutes after exposure to allergy-causing substance. Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic reaction. Some common triggers for Anaphylaxis are:

   •Medications

   •Foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish

   •Insect stings from bees, yellow jackets, wasps, hornets and fire ants (always remove the stinger by pushing it out with a bank card or something similar).

Signs of Anaphylaxis are:

   •Skin reactions, including hives, itching, and flushed or pale skin

   •Swelling of the face, eyes, lips or throat•Constriction of the airways, leading to wheezing and trouble breathing

   •Symptoms of Anaphylaxis are:

   •A weak and rapid pulse

   •Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea

   •Dizziness, fainting or unconsciousness

Here are some steps to take if someone is having an allergic reaction with signs of anaphylaxis:

   •Call 911 Immediately

   •Ask the person if he or she is carrying an epinephrine autoinjector (EpiPen) to treat their anaphylaxis

   •If the person has an autoinjector, ask whether you should help inject the medication. Before injecting make sure that the medication is for the person and not someone else.

   •Have the person in the supine position or a position that is most comfortable.

   •Some of these people have a hard time breathing, therefore it might be easier for them to breath in a sitting position.

   •Loosen any tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket for privacy. Do not give the person anything to drink.

   •If the person starts vomiting or bleeding from the mouth, place the person on their side to prevent choking.

   •If there are no signs of breathing, begin CPR.

   •After an episode of anaphylaxis, it is possible for symptoms to reoccur. It is usually necessary for the patient to be monitored at a hospital for several hours after the episode.

Concussion

Often when people hear the word concussion, it makes them think of someone that has been knocked out (loss of consciousness), while playing sports. The definition of concussion is the temporary disruptions of brain function, therefor this can happen with any head injury, often associated with a loss of consciousness.

 

The big question is when does my child need to go to the emergency room.

   •loss of consciousness

   •severe headache, including a headache that gets worse

   •blurred vision

   •trouble walking

   •confusion and saying things that don't make sense

   •slurred speech

   •unresponsiveness (you're unable to wake your child)

 

If other problems exist, such as vomiting, dizziness, headache, or trouble concentrating, contact your doctor immediately. They can give you advice on what to do next. But as a parent, if you do not feel as though something is right, always have your child examined.

Infant Choking or Gagging

If the infant is coughing or gagging, it means the infants' airway is only partially blocked. In that case, get the infant to cough. Coughing is the most effective way to force a blockage out. If the problem worsens and the infant is suddenly unable to cry or cough, something is most likely blocking the infants airway, and you will need to help force the object out. If they are not getting proper air flow, their skin may turn bright red or the lips might go blue.

If the child isn't able to bring up the object, ask someone to call 911 as you begin back blows and abdominal thrusts. Make sure the person returns and informs you that the ambulance is on their way.

 

First Start with back blows

If a infant is conscious but can't cough, talk, or breathe, pick up the infant and hold him face down on your forearm, support both head and jaw with your hand. Place your forearm with the infant on it, on your thigh for support. Firmly strike the child between the shoulder blades with the heel of your other hand. Then after five back blows sandwich the infant in both forearms and turn infant face up.

 

Then do chest thrusts

At this point you do chest thrusts by using two fingers just below the nipple line, just as if you were doing CPR. Push down on infants chest about 1.5 inches for 5 chest thrust. Allow the chest to fully recoil each time.Repeat back blows and chest thrusts.

 

Continue alternating five back blows and five chest thrusts until the object is forced out, or the child starts to cry, breath or cough forcefully. If he is coughing, encourage him to cough up the object.If the child becomes unconscious

 

If a child who is choking on something becomes unconscious, you'll need to start CPR. For more information on Infant CPR, please come and join one of our CPR or Standard First Aid Courses.